## Description

ECE 490-1: Independent Study – Macromodeling of Analog Circuits is 3-credit course taught at Michigan State University for Electrical and Computer Engineering majors. * The catalog description for this course is: Macromodel methodolgy. Behavior macromodels. Parametric analysis. Op-amp macromodels. Comparator macromodels.* The prerequisite for this course is ECE 402.

The companion textbooks used in this course are :

Connelly & Choi, Macromodeling with SPICE, Prentice Hall, 1992

M. Rashid, Intro. To PSpice Using Orcad for Circuits and Electronics, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004

**Table of Contents**

Chapter 1: Introduction to SPICE

Review of the Sspice Manual

Chapter 2: Macromodeling Methodology

2.1 Arithmetic Functions

Polynomial VCVS, Voltage Addition and Subtraction, Voltage Multiplication, Expression VCVS, LaPlace VCVS, Other Controlled Sources

2.2 Piecewise Linear (PWL) Approximations

Table VCVS, Table VCCS, Simulated Resistance, V-I Characteristics, Frequency Table VCCS, Time Domain Response, Non-Causal Response

Chapter 3: Behavior Macromodels

3.1 An Ideal Op-Amp

Inverting Amplifier, Subcircuit Modeling

3.2 Op-Amp Bandwidth, Input Resistance and Output Resistance

3.3 Ideal Comparator

Noninverting Crossing Detector, Inverting Crossing Detector, Comparator with Hysteresis (Noninverting)

3.4 Multiplier

Basic Multiplier, Balanced Modulator, Amplitude Modualtor, Frequency Doubler, Square Root, Divider, RMS-to-DC Converter

Chapter 4: PSpice as a Tool

A. Parametric Analysis

.PARAM, .STEP, Variable Resistor

B. Goal Functions

Measuring Rise-Time, SEARCH, Measuring Fall-Time, Measuring Bandwidth, General Rise-Time and Overshoot, Peak Detection, Phase Margin

C. Schematic Capture

Voltage Divider, Getting a Resistor, Getting a Voltage Source, Wiring of Components, Labeling the Nodes, Changing Component Values, Placing Text on the Screen, Running the Simulation

D. Parametric Analysis

Fixed-Bias Circuit, Self-Bias Circuit, Fixed-Plus Self-Bias Circuit

E Library Models

Noninverting Amplifier using a UA741 Macromodel

Chapter 5: SPICE Components

A. SPICE as a Tool

SPICE Components

Diodes; V-I Characteristics; Reverse Recovery; NPN BJT; V-I Characteristics; PNP BJT; V-I Characteristics; N-Channel JFET; V-I Characteristics; P-Channel JFET; V-I Characteristics; N-Channel MOSFET; V-I Characteristics; P-Channel MOSFET; V-I Characteristics.

Chapter 6: Op Amp Macromodeling

A. Boyle Model

SPICE Test Circuits

Transfer characteristics; Input Bias and Offset Currents; Open Loop Gain; Output Impedance; Common-Mode Gain; Short Circuit Current; Slew Rate

Model Formulas

Input Stage: IC and CE ; SR+; SR-; Jump; Transistor Parameters; Bartlett’s Bisection Theorem; One Capacitor Circuits; Input Stage: RCi and REi ; Input Stage: C1 ; Interstage: GCM ; Output Stage: RO1 , RO2 and GB ; Output: Current Limiting; Output: Voltage Limiting; DC Power Drain; Verification.

Design Procedure

Given Op-Amp Parameters, Pick Component Values.

Other Input Stages

PNP Boyle Model; Transfer Characteristics; Slew Rate; Verification; Design Procedure; N-JFET Boyle Model; Transfer Characteristics; Input Stage Changes; Verification; Design Procedure; P-JFET Boyle Model; Transfer Characteristics; Slew Rate; Verification; Design Procedure.

Model Inaccuracies

Device Level Model; Supply Current: Device Level Model; Supply Current: Boyle Model; Supply Current: Device Level Model; Supply Current: Boyle Model; Asymmetric Supplies: Device Level Model; Asymmetric Supplies: Boyle; PSRR: Device Level Model; PSRR: Boyle Model; PSrr+: Device Level Model; PSrr+: Boyle Model; PSrr-: Device Level Model; PSrr-: Boyle Model; Supplies Off: Device Level Model; Supplies Off: Boyle Model; Power Up and Down: Device; Output Impedance: Device; Common-Mode Gain: Device.

B. MicroSim Model

SPICE Test Circuits

Transfer characteristics; Input Bias and Offset Currents; Open Loop Gain; Output Impedance; Common-Mode Gain; Short Circuit Current; Slew Rate; Supply Current; Supply Current During Clipping; Asymmetric Supplies; PSRR; PSrr+; PSrr-; Supplies Off; Power Up and Down.

Model Formulas

Interstage; Input Offset Voltage; Output: Current Limiting; Output: Voltage Limiting; Verification.

Design Procedure

Given Op-Amp Parameters, Pick Component Values.

Other Input Stages

PNP MicroSim Model; Asymmetric Supplies; Verification; Design Procedure; P-JFET MicroSim Model; “Parts” JFET Macromodels; Verification; Design Procedure; N-JFET MicroSim Model; Verification; Design Procedure.

Model Inaccuracies

Asymmetric Supply: Device; Asymmetric Supply: Boyle; Asymmetric Supply: MicroSim; EGND Removed.

Chapter 7: Comparator Macromodeling

A. Getreu Model

SPICE Test Circuits

Transfer characteristics; Response Time: 2 mV OD HL; Response Time: 5 mV OD HL; Response Time: 20 mV OD HL; Response Time: 2 mV OD LH; Response Time: 5 mV OD LH; Response Time: 20 mV OD LH; Strobing

Model Formulas

Input Stage: High-to-Low; Interstage: High-to-Low; Output Stage; Input Stage: Low-to-High; Interstage: Low-to-High; Input Stage; Verification.

Design Procedure

Given Comparator Parameters, Pick Component Values.

Other Output Stages

PNP Getreu Model; Verification; Design Procedure; P-JFET Getreu Model; Verification; Design Procedure.