## Description

ECE 345: Electronic Instrumentation and Systems is 3-credit course taught at Michigan State University for non-Electrical and Computer Engineering majors. There are two 50-minute lectures per week and one 3-hour lab per week. * The catalog description for this course is: Electrical and electronic components, circuits and instruments. Circuit laws and applications, frequency response, operational amplifiers, semi-conductor devices, digital logic, counting circuits. *The prerequisites for this course are current enrollment or completion of fourth semester calculus and a calculus based physics course.

The companion textbook used in this course is :

Rizzoni & Kearns, Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 2016, 6th Edition or later.

On-Line Course

A YouTube Channel (https://www.youtube.com/user/ECE345msu ) has been made to recreate the classroom experience for this ebook. This on-line version of the course is intended for non-ECE students at MSU. However these videos will also allow anyone, student, hobbyist or engineer (with the minimum background of an algebra course and an introductory course in calculus) to take this course at their own pace. You can find a suggested Self-Paced Instruction section near the middle of this ebook.

Lab Manual and e-Notes

The lab lectures consist of e-Notes explaining the ideas and concepts of each lab experiment based on the principles taught in the lectures of ECE 345. These lectures are recorded and can be found on the ECE 345L YouTube channel at: https://www.youtube.com/user/ECE345Lmsu

The lab experiments are intended to teach measurement techniques as well as reinforce concepts taught. As you complete each task in lab you will be asked to record, calculate and evaluate your data. You cannot go on to the next step or circuit unless each task is completed as stated in the lab experiment. This method emphasizes accuracy over speed.

**Lecture Table of Contents**

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electrical Engineering

A.C Fundamentals of Engineering Exam Review

1.3 Brief History of Electrical Engineering

1.5 System of Units

Prefixes, Engineering Notation

Chapter 1: Supplemental Problems and Solutions

S1.1

Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Electric Circuits

2.2 Charge, Current, and Kirchhoff’s Current Law

Charge, Current, Nodes, Conservation of Charge, Kirchhoff’s Current Law, Interpretation of Signs, Alternate Form of KCL

2.3 Voltage and Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

Voltage, Closed Path, Conservation of Energy, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, Interpretation of Signs, Alternate Form of KVL

2.5 Ideal Voltage and Current Sources

Ideal Voltage Source, V-I Characteristics, Ideal Current Source, V-I Characteristics

2.4 Electric Power and Sign Convention

Power, Energy, Passive Sign Convention

2.6 Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Ohm’s Law, Conductance, Power, Resistor, Open Circuit, Short Circuit, Series Resistors, Voltage Divider, Parallel Resistors, Current Divider

2.11 Measuring Devices

Ohmmeter, Ammeter, Voltmeter, Wheatstone Bridge

Chapter 2: Supplemental Problems and Solutions

S2.1, S2.2, S2.3, S2.4, S2.5, S2.6, S2.7, S2.8, S2.9, S2.10, S2.11, S2.12, S2.13, S2.14, S2.15, S2.16

Chapter 9: Semiconductors and Diodes

9.3 Circuit Models for the Semiconductor Diode

Ideal Diode, V-I Characteristics, Piecewise Linear Model, Transition Point, Assumed States for Analysis, Strategy for Guessing States, Example

9.2 The Semiconductor Diode

Non-Ideal Diode, V-I Characteristics, Piecewise Linear Model, Light- Emitting-Diodes

9.5 Half-wave Rectifiers

Converting AC to DC

9.6 Zener Diodes

Piecewise Linear Model, Shunt Regulator

Chapter 9: Supplemental Problems and Solutions

S9.1, S9.2, S9.3, S9.4, S9.5

Chapter 8/15: Operational Amplifiers and Comparators

8.2 The Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp)

Ideal Op-Amp, 0V-0A Property, Inverting Amplifier, Power Supply Limitations, Non-Inverting Amplifier

15.5 Comparator

Ideal Comparator, Inverting Crossing Detector, Non-Inverting Crossing Detector

Chapter 8/15: Supplemental Problems and Solutions

S8.1, S8.2, S8.3, S8.4, S8.5

Chapter 3: Resistive Network Analysis

3.2 The Node-Voltage Method

Node-Voltage Inspection Property, Node-Voltage Analysis with Current Sources, Cramer’s Rule, Node-Voltage Analysis with a Voltage Source

3.3 The Mesh-Current Method

Planar Circuits, Mesh-Current Inspection Property, Mesh-Current Analysis with a Voltage Source, MATLAB, Mesh-Current Analysis with Current Sources

3.5 The Principle of Superpositon

Superpositon, Zero Sources, Proportionality, Linearity

3.6 One Port Networks and Equivalent Circuits

Thevenin’s Theorem, Norton’s Theorem, Source Transformations

3.4 Dependent Sources

Dependent Voltage Sources, Dependent Current Sources, Node-Voltage Analysis with Dependent Sources, Mesh-Current Analysis with Dependent Sources, Op-Amp as a VCVS, Inverting Amplifier – Revisited, Modeling with Dependent Sources, Stereo Pan-Pot Circuit, Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits with Dependent Sources

Chapter 3: Supplemental Problems and Solutions

S3.1, S3.2, S3.3, S3.4, S3.5, S3.6, S3.7, S3.8, S3.9, S3.10, S3.11, S3.12, S3.13, S3.14, S3.15, S3.16, S3.17

Chapter 10: Transistor Fundamentals

10.2 The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

NPN, Active Region, Saturation Region, Cut-Off Region, Edge-of-Saturation, Edge-of-Cut-Off, NPN Examples, PNP, Active Region, Saturation Region, Cut-Off Region, Edge-of-Saturation, Edge-of-Cut-Off, NPN – PNP Example

Chapter 10: Supplemental Problems and Solutions

S10.1, S10.2, S10.3, S10.4, S10.5

Chapter 5: Transient Analysis

4.1 Energy-Storage Circuit Elements

Capacitance, V-I Characteristics, Power and Energy, Capacitor, Insulation Resistance, Parallel Capacitance, Series Capacitance, Inductance, V-I Characteristics, Power and Energy, Inductor, Equivalent Series Resistance, Series Inductance, Parallel Inductance

5.3 Transient Response of First-Order Circuits

Step Response of an RC Circuit, RC Circuit Algorithm, RC Charging Circuit Example, Significance of the Time Constant, Step Response of an RL Circuit, RL Circuit Algorithm, Natural and Forced Response, Transient Response with an AC Source

Chapter 5: Supplemental Problems and Solutions

S5.1, S5.2, S5.3, S5.4, S5.5, S5.6, S5.7, S5.8, S5.9, S5.10, S5.11

Chapter 4: AC Network Analysis

4.2 Time-Dependent Signal Sources

Sinusoids, Cycle, Period, Frequency, Phase Angle, Amplitude, Average and RMS Values

4.4/5 Phasors and Impedance

Vector Representation of Sinusoids, Phasors, Euler’s Identity, Complex Numbers, Rectangular Form, Polar Form, Phasor Transform, Inverse Phasor Transform, Complex Algebra, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law with Phasors, Kirchhoff’s Current Law with Phasors, Ohm’s Law in the Frequency Domain, Impedance, Admittance

4.6 AC Circuit Analysis Methods

Series Impedances, Phasor Analysis Algorithm, Series Resonance

Chapter 4: Supplemental Problems and Solutions

S4.1, S4.2, S4.3, S4.4, S4.5, S4.6, S4.7

Chapter 6: Frequency Response and System Concepts

6.1 Sinusoidal Frequency Response

Fourier Series

6.3/4 Filters

Low-Pass Filter, Bode Plots, High-Pass Filter, Band-Pass Filter, Band-Stop (Notch) Filter, Second-Order Low-Pass Filter, Second-Order High-Pass Filter

Chapter 6: Supplemental Problems and Solutions

S6.1, S6.2, S6.3, S6.4, S6.5

**Lab Table of Contents**

Lab I – Introduction to the Oscilloscope, Function Generator and Digital Multimeter

PURPOSE: The oscilloscope, function generator and digital multimeter are the basic tools in the measurement and testing of circuits. This lab introduces the first time operation of these instruments.

The concepts covered are:

1. the resistor color code;

2. accuracy of components and the digital multimeter.

The laboratory techniques covered are:

1. voltage amplitude and time measurement with an oscilloscope;

2. measurement of resistors;

3. measurement of resistance using a 4-wire probe.

Lab II – Introduction to Prototyping Circuits

PURPOSE: This lab looks at techniques for measuring source resistance. It also introduces the use of a Proto-Board for the quick assembly of a circuit without the need to solder wires.

The concepts covered are:

1. accuracy of the InfiniiVision;

2. measuring source resistance in linear circuits;

3. terminating cables to suppress reflections;

4. poles and throws of switches;

5. battery performance and characterization;

6. microphone characterization.

The laboratory techniques covered are:

1. using the InfiniiVision’s Automatic Parametric Measurement feature to measure peak-to-peak voltages;

2. re-programming the function generator’s calibration for High Impedance loads;

3. measuring DC voltage with a digital multimeter.

Lab III – Diode Curve Tracer

PURPOSE: An instrument that displays the V-I characteristics of a device is called a curve tracer. Our scope can be used to make such an instrument.

The concepts covered are:

1. the properties of the ideal operational amplifier;

2. inverting amplifier;

3. V-I characteristics of various types of diodes ;

4. designing a diode curve tracer.

The laboratory techniques covered are:

1. the use of the dual trace feature of an oscilloscope;

2. using the InfiniiVision’s XY plotting feature to plot voltage transfer curves;

3. laying out a complex circuit on a Proto-Board with connections for power and the function generator;

4. using X10 probes for measurement.

Lab IV – Introduction to Microcontrollers

PURPOSE: Microcontrollers are devices that contain much of the same items as a computer such as a CPU (Central Processing Unit) and memory but don’t use a monitor, keyboard or mouse to operate, in general. Microcontrollers are usually used for controlling machines through circuitry called hardware and a set of instructions called software programs.

The concepts covered are:

1. Programming in PBASIC;

2. Commands: OUTPUT, PAUSE, GOTO and OUT;

3. Commands: INPUT, IN, and IF_THEN;

4 Boolean operator: OR;

5. Commands: VAR.

The laboratory techniques covered are:

1. the layout of the Basic Stamp microcontroller and the Board of Education manufactured by Parallax, Inc.;

2. writing, editing and downloading programs in PBASIC;

3. using push-button switches as input sensors and LEDs as output sensors.

Lab V – Build Your Own Digital DC Voltmeter

PURPOSE: Analog voltages and currents are continuous with every possible value between two points. Digital voltages and currents have only two possible. A bit is one binary digit that has a value of 0 or 1. It takes many bits to represent a decimal number. In this lab, we will convert an analog voltage into a binary number. This voltage will be converted to a decimal equivalent and displayed.

The concepts covered are:

1. counting in binary;

2. serial data transmission;

3. analog-to-digital conversion;

4 subroutines;

5. commands: PULSOUT, SHIFTIN and DEBUG;

6. fixed and floating point numbers.

The laboratory techniques covered are:

1. using an off the shelf integrated circuit for performing serial analog-to-digital conversion;

2. accuracy and resolution.

Lab VI – Serial Liquid Crystal Display

PURPOSE: Displaying text and data can also be done with a display module. This module has its own microcontroller to manage the display. In this experiment we will use a 2 x 16 display which means 2 lines with 16 characters per line.

The concepts covered are:

1. displaying text and data;

2. command: CON;

3. asynchronous serial data transmission;

4 command: SEROUT;

5. command: FOR_NEXT.

The laboratory techniques covered are:

1. using an off the shelf liquid crystal display to display text and data.

Lab VII – Entertainment System: MP3 Player Power Amplifier, PA System and Mixer.

PURPOSE: Most students have a SmartPhone (MP3 player). Docking this portable music player into a low cost entertainment system would be desirable for many students.

In this lab, we will be building a power amplifier that can be used to drive a speaker so that you can listen to your player without using headphones. We will also build a mixer that will allow us to combine our player with a microphone or any other source of sound.

The concepts covered are:

1. current limit of an op-amp;

2. non-inverting amplifier;

3. V-I characteristics of an NPN and PNP bipolar transistor ;

4. stereo-to-monaural conversion;

5. mixing with an inverting summer.

The laboratory techniques covered are:

1. triggering;

2. using averaging to reduce noise pick-up;

3. using high-frequency noise rejection to improve triggering;

4. measuring gain.

Lab VIII – DC Power Supply and Regulator

PURPOSE: Rectifiers are used to turn an ac voltage with an average voltage of zero into a voltage with a non-zero average value. Adding a large capacitor results in a fairly constant voltage with a small ac ripple voltage. The ripple can be greatly reduced with a Zener diode shunt regulator.

The concepts covered are:

1. transformer turns ratio relationships

2. half-wave rectification;

3. half-wave rectification with capacitive smoothing;

4. Zener diode shunt regulator.

The laboratory techniques covered are:

1. using the InfiniiVision’s auto measurements to measure average voltages, peak voltages, peak-to-peak voltages and frequency;

2. using the InfiniiVision’s Math Functions to differentiate a capacitor voltage to estimate the maximum repetitive diode current.

Lab IX – Light Activated Exhaust Fan

PURPOSE: One use of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) is to switch circuits on and off. Switching various loads on or off can cause problems especially when the load is inductive. Sometimes the load contains a large amount of energy and isolating this from the control circuitry is very important especially in the case of a component failure. Sensors play a role in many electronic circuits. In this lab we will use a light sensitive resistor to sense a smoke filled room and turn on an exhaust fan. When the room is again clear of smoke it will turn off the fan. This type of photo-resistor is also used in auto-focus cameras, street lamp switches and contrast controls for TVs.

The concepts covered are:

1. the bipolar logic inverter;

2. switching resistive and inductive loads;

3. using a damping diode to discharge a coil;

4. using a relay for load isolation;

5. using a photo-resistor as a sensor;

6. using a magnet to activate a circuit.

The laboratory techniques covered are:

1. Using a x10 probe to measure a BJT’s breakdown voltage;